If a person has subcutaneous parasites, it is important to consult a doctor in time and diagnose the problem. It is also necessary to choose a therapy regimen that will take into account the type of worms and their location. Which parasites can live in human skin, which symptoms bother the patient at the same time, which diagnostic measures will help diagnose the disease and which drug treatment is carried out when the diagnosis is confirmed?
Reasons for occurrence
Subcutaneous helminths, which penetrate the human body, may not show up for years. When the worm matures, the infected person develops severe symptoms that indicate that something is wrong with the body and medical help is needed. Worm larvae enter the body of the host in the following ways:
- through the bites of infected insects;
- when you drink water that contains larvae;
- skin contact with an infected person.
To determine which parasites have entered a person's skin, it is necessary to contact an infectious disease doctor who will send the patient for examination. After a series of diagnostic tests, the doctor identifies the type of worm and prescribes appropriate treatment. It is not recommended to try to remove subcutaneous parasites yourself, as this can worsen the condition and cause life-threatening complications.
Types of subcutaneous helminths, symptoms and site of localization
Dranculosis - worms under human skin that enter the body when drinking dirty water, live in countries with warm climates. The parasites are localized on the back, abdomen and legs, or in the subcutaneous layer. Adults reach a size of up to 150 cm, and carriers can also be pets. When larvae enter the human body, they migrate through the bloodstream, penetrate internal organs and the subcutaneous layer. Adults reach full maturity after 12 months.
Due to the fact that skin parasites secrete their waste products, the skin at the site of their localization swells, itches, and when the tumor reaches a large size, it bursts, releasing new larvae. Leg larvae cause complications such as blood poisoning, joint problems and fertilization in parasite habitats.
Heartworm - skin parasites in humans, which penetrate the body of the host through insect bites, often mosquitoes. The primary host of heartworm is a domestic animal that is bitten by a mosquito, transmitting larvae with a sting to the human body. The incubation period lasts 2-3 years, and the infected person does not have any symptoms during that period. The subcutaneous worm dirofilaria affects not only a person's skin, migrating larvae enter the sclera, which leads to visual impairment, and in the case of untimely treatment, to complete loss. Also, the worm can live in the scrotum and affect other genital organs of the patient.
In the process of vital activity, intradermal parasites secrete toxic waste products, resulting in itching and burning. As the parasite grows, so does the surface area of the lesion on the skin. To remove the worm, the affected area is resected by extraction of heartworm.
Scabies mites are parasites that live under the skin and can only be seen under a microscope. Settling in the subcutaneous layer, the mite develops vital activity, damaging the integrity of the dermis, which is why the patient is worried about severe itching. They feed on human epithelium, the tick fully develops in the patient's body, and lays eggs after puberty. The parasite is most often localized on the back, hands and fingers, soles, outer surface of the thighs, chest, armpits, genitals, scalp. Scabies mite infection is clearly visible visually, and if the disease is not treated, complications such as furunculosis, dermatitis, eczema develop.
The main vectors of the disease are infected insects that infect a person when they bite. When the larva enters the human body, symptoms of fever develop, accompanied by a rash on the skin. After that, the disease is not felt for several years. When larvae form, the person experiences symptoms such as worsening general well-being, weakness, and fever. Rash in the form of eczema, ulcers, warts and nodular growths appear on the neck, trunk and back. If the disease is not treated in time, the person suffers from vision, arthrosis is taken care of.
Schistosomiasis - subcutaneous worms that enter the human body after contact with contaminated water. Worms infect the patient's genitals, causing itching, allergic rash, dermatitis. In schistosomiasis, the kidneys and liver are affected. Parasites in the testicles and scrotum cause inflammation, lumps and itching. It is important to diagnose the disease in time and start treatment with medication.
Cysticercosis is caused by tapeworm larvae, which enter the human body by drinking contaminated water and the meat of a sick animal. Helminths live under the skin, in the eyes, in the tissues of internal organs, muscles, and even in the head. If the larvae are localized in the muscles and under the skin, pain and tingling occur. The affected area under the skin, where the helminth is located, grows in size, gradually becoming denser.
Subcutaneous parasites in humans are diagnosed directly in the office of an infectologist who examines the patient. The doctor evaluates the lesions, which determine the neglect of the disease. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the patient is referred for blood tests and scraping. For a more detailed diagnosis, instrumental methods are used to help determine the location of the parasite and the number of adults in the body. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor develops a treatment regimen.
Treatment of subcutaneous parasites in humans
The treatment of parasites that affect the skin is based on the use of broad-spectrum anthelmintics. In inflammation, the use of antibiotics, vasoconstrictors and antihistamines is indicated.
In heartworm disease, when the worm is concentrated in one place and its movement is limited, an operation is prescribed in which an incision is made in the affected part and with the help of a doctor, the worms come out through the skin. Surgical removal is indicated for massive damage to large worms of internal organs, sclera of the eyes and brain. You should not try to cure this type of helminthiasis yourself, using folk methods, because they are mostly ineffective with abundant invasion, and in some cases can harm the patient.
Since subcutaneous worms and mites enter the human body through the skin, after contact with an infected carrier, the first thing to do is follow hygiene rules: always wash your hands before eating, keep the room clean, change underwear and bedding regularly, work to prevent mosquitoesand other insects to enter the apartment building.
If a person prefers to relax in countries with tropical climates, it is worth taking care in advance of the quality of drinks, food and places to rest. If the selected area is inhabited by insects and animals that cause parasitic disease, then it is worth consulting with your doctor about safety rules that will help avoid infection.