There are different ways to infect humans with parasites. Statistics show that the presence of parasites in the body and infectious diseases are common causes of human death.
Scientists have found fungi, bacteria and even algae in the blood plasma. Intestinal worms are the most common.
Parasites are able to live in humans for a long time. In 60% of cases, chronic and oncological diseases are caused by their vital activity. Prolonged exposure to microorganisms damages internal organs and the entire immune system.
Methods of parasite infection
There are different ways to infect parasites. Parasites are microorganisms that live at the expense of another organism and are biologically and ecologically related to it. Parasites can feed on juices, wipes, products that a person consumes, remaining in the body temporarily or permanently.
You can get helminths in the following ways:
- Through dirty hands.
- In contact with the ground.
- For insect bites.
- If you eat an undercooked piece of meat or fish.
- If you do not wash fruits and vegetables before eating.
- If contact is illiterate with animals.
- When in contact with a sick person with helminths.
Worm eggs can be found in soil, water, dirty fruits and vegetables, and meat or fish that have not undergone sufficient heat treatment.
In some cases, the infection can be caused by insect bites, but it is extremely rare, because mostly helminth eggs enter the body with food. Dirty hands can also become a source of helminthiasis infection.
You can also get infected from a sick person who is a carrier of pinworms. Pinworm crawls through the anus and lays eggs in the anus. They, in turn, can stay on the underwear, be in the hands of the person. The larvae can stay on the toilet, front door handles, on other objects. If the rules of personal hygiene are not followed, they penetrate the body of other family members. If helminths are found in one of the family members, all members of the household must be treated.
Waterborne infection is caused by drinking unboiled water or bathing.
What types of helminths are there?
The most common group of intestinal worms, which includes nematodes. These include hookworms, roundworms, pinworms, heartworms and trichinae.
Another large group includes protozoan, or unicellular, parasites. These are amoebae, giardiasis, neospores, cryptosporidia, etc.
Entameba chistolytic infection can occur through drinking contaminated water. In this case, there is a rare stool, severe abdominal pain, vomiting. Sometimes in severe cases, such manifestations cause a complication in the liver. People often confuse amoebic dysentery with a viral infection.
Millions of single-celled parasites can exist and develop on the walls of the stomach, which do not allow the nutrients necessary for the body to be properly absorbed.
Characteristic signs of giardiasis
The symptoms of parasite infestation are as follows:
- Accumulation of gas in the stomach.
- Uneven stool with pieces of undigested food.
- Increased sweating.
- Frequent abdominal pain.
- Liquid stool.
In the absence of treatment against parasites, over time, the person will begin to lose weight and often get sick due to the impoverishment of the immune system. Of course, it is not advisable to be guided only by symptoms to identify parasites. To detect helminths, it is necessary to perform stool and blood tests. Treatment largely depends on the degree of infection. In folk medicine there are many recipes for the treatment of helminthiasis, in severe cases it is better to resort to medical methods of treatment.
Classification of helminths
Worms are divided into flat and round.
- Trematodes, this includes schistosomes, opisthorchiasis, etc.
- Cestode - echinococcus, tapeworm, alveococcus.
Ocal worms or nematodes:
The following types of helminths are the most common.
This type of worm is heterosexual, on the outside it resembles a needle 0. 4, 2. 6 cm long. Females are considered large, which can produce up to 300 larvae per day.
Transmission routes are mainly by bathing in polluted waters. The infection occurs through a person's mucous membranes and by accidentally swallowing dirty water while bathing. Once in the body, the larva transforms into an adult in one day, capable of producing hundreds of similar organisms.
Schistosomes reach puberty after blood flow enters the human venous system. An individual's eggs can be in the intestines, urine, mucous membranes. After emptying the bowel, schistosomiasis begins its journey in the same way.
This parasite can remain in the human body for decades, causing irreparable damage to the patient. It is not the schistosomes themselves that are dangerous, but their eggs. They accumulate on the internal organs and damage their spikes, damaging the tissue, which often causes various ulcers.
There are symptoms by which a person can determine the presence of schistosomes in the body:
- poor appetite;
- enlargement of the liver and changes in the spleen;
- poor bowel motility;
- abdominal pain;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- severe weight loss;
- intestinal bleeding;
- pain when urinating;
- allergic reactions;
- general weakness.
Cestodes are ribbons that can reach gigantic lengths. Thus, the length of an adult is on average 0, 5 cm. A female cestode can lay up to 200, 000 eggs a year.
Due to special devices on the heads in the form of suction cups, cestodes are firmly attached to the walls of the hose. In this case, the whole body suffers. Such worms are especially dangerous for small children, because their vital activity depletes the body and causes anemia in a short time.
The routes of infection are fecal-oral, ie. these are dirty hands, fruits and vegetables. The larvae, when they enter the intestines, spread through veins throughout the body, penetrating the liver, heart, and even the oral cavity. A certain number of larvae die in this case, while the rest is swallowed again.
The main signs of parasite infection:
- nausea and vomiting;
- yellowing of the skin;
- frequent colds;
- development of bronchitis and pneumonia.
Prevention of parasite infestation
Since there are many ways to infect parasites, it is worth following some rules to protect yourself and family members from possible ingestion of worm larvae.
- Adherence to the rules of personal hygiene. Frequent hand washing will prevent parasites from entering the human body. This should be especially taught to children, who often take their hands and various objects in their mouths.
- Thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables with running or boiled water.
- Extermination in insects of flying and crawling insects (flies, cockroaches), because they are carriers of helminth eggs.
Many experts believe that every person is a carrier of parasites to one degree or another, so the body should be cleansed from time to time.